Schistosoma has been associated with colorectal cancer. We compared the number of colorectal cancer admissions between those cities in the state of Pernambuco with and without schistosomiasis. We abstracted data from Datasus and analyzed the number of admissions due to CRC in those cities with (CRC/Schistosoma) and without schistosomiasis (CRC-alone) in the State of Pernambuco and compared these numbers using odds ratio and relative risk at a significance level of 5%. This was preceded by an F test to reject the null hypothesis that the number of cities in each group was the same. The mean number of admissions due to CRC in CRC-Schistosoma cities was 94.55, with a variability of 366%, while in CRC-alone cities the mean was 11.06, with a variability of 88%. A test at a significance level of 5% rejected the hypothesis that these variances were the same (p-value, 0.0000). A subsequent test also rejected the null hypothesis that the mean of admissions was the same (two-sided p-value 0.0167). The state of Pernambuco encompasses 184 cities of which 103 registered schistosomiases (102 with colorectal cancer and 1 without). We compared the number of admissions due to CRC and/or due to schistosomiasis with admissions due to other diseases to measure the odds ratio for colorectal cancer due to schistosomiasis exposure. This comparison resulted in an OR of 2.657 (CI 95% 2,478-2,849) for CRC due to exposure to schistosomiasis. We found a statistically significant correlation between colorectal cancer admissions and schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco. Pharmacoeconomic studies might proof if investment to prevent nematode infestation would translate into cost spare with less admissions due to cancer and cancer treatments.
Keywords: Schistosoma; Schistosoma mansoni; Colorectal Neoplasms; Carcinogenesis; Patient Admission
Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved for clinical management of lung cancers, including screening strategies, use of immunotherapy-based approaches to treat locally advanced and metastatic disease, and development of novel targeted agents for molecularly defined subgroups. In this review, we summarize the studies published/presented in 2018 that form the basis for new standard-of-care management options for lung cancers. These practice-changing studies exemplify the importance of multidisciplinary, evidence-based care to improve outcomes for lung cancer patients.
Keywords: Lung Neoplasms; Immunotherapy; Molecular Targeted Therapy
INTRODUCTION: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors with a challenge treatment. In Brazil, HNSCC represent the third most frequent neoplasia in men.
AIM: The aim of this study was to review the most relevant and practice changing articles recently published.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review of the literature covered studies published over the last year and described key evidence-based changes in treatment of HNSCC.
RESULTS: We retrieved nine studies with clinical impact. The main updates include: 1) systematic review in the treatment delivery time; 2) recommendations for the diagnosis of HPV oropharyngeal carcinoma; 3) guidelines for the delineation of target volumes in radiation therapy; 4) de-intensification of treatment in HPV positive oropharyngeal carcinoma; 5) induction chemotherapy; 6) immunotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment and diagnosis of HNSCC has changed over the last year, mainly with the inclusion of HPV positive oropharyngeal carcinoma and immunotherapy.
Keywords: Head and Neck Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Chemoradiotherapy; Immunotherapy; Patient Care Team
The Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is the most common cause of Leukemia in adults, corresponding to 30% of the total amount of the cases of leukemia diagnosed nowadays. One of the greatest challenges regarding its clinical management is related to the greater risk of developing secondary diseases, in especial the appearance of hematological and solid neoplasms. It is thought that the immunosuppression induced by the leukemia and by the chemotherapeutic treatments, the genetic features intrinsic to each individual, and some risk factors (such as smoking and solar exposure) have a key role in facilitating the appearance of those secondary malignancies. The patients with leukemia need to go through a more careful follow-up, intending to monitor the emergence and treatment of those possible secondary malignancies, in order to achieve a better prognosis and a better quality of life.
Keywords: Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell. Hematologic Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Second Primary
Gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor is a rare neoplasm that affects young population and is associated with poor prognosis. Previously named Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, due to the similar phenotypic pattern, advances in the molecular characterization of this tumor helped to differentiate it as a separate disease. Despite this, the small number of cases reported only suggests a reserved prognosis and isolated treatment recommendations based on local experiences. This case report illustrates a 37-year-old patient with constitutional symptoms diagnosed with metastatic disease treated with an aggressive approach involving preoperative chemotherapy followed by metastasis resection, with no evidence of disease recurrence after two years of follow-up.
Keywords: Neuroectodermal; Gastrointestinal; Rare; Young; Clear cell sarcoma